If you read a newspaper, go on the internet, or turn on the TV, you may well have seen some shocking headlines about trans people lately.
It’s fine if you don’t feel like you know very much about trans people – lots of people don’t. But it’s important to know that some myths and misconceptions are repeated consistently in the media, and this makes it harder to discover the truth when it comes to some of these issues.
We’ve developed this Q&A to answer some of the common questions about trans people, and to tackle some of those myths and misconceptions you might have seen.
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- How many trans people are there in Britain at the moment?
- How does a person know they are trans?
- What’s the situation like for trans people in the UK at the moment?
- What process do you have to go through to be recognised as trans in daily life?
- What is a Gender Recognition Certificate and how do you get one?
- What’s wrong with this process?
- Do you need to have gender reassignment surgery to be trans?
- Does teachers and doctors talking about trans issues more make children and young people think they are trans when they aren’t?
- Should under 18s be able to transition?
- Is trans healthcare a form of conversion therapy for gay people?
- Is it true that lots of people change their mind about their transition?
- Are you calling for gender to be removed from documents?
- What does non-binary mean, and what’s the right way to talk about it?
- What does ‘cis’ mean?
- What do deadnaming and misgendering mean?
- It all feels complicated and I’m frightened of saying the wrong thing
- Can you be trans and gay?
- So, could a lesbian have a trans woman as a partner, or a gay man be with a trans man?
- Which public toilets can trans people use?
- Should trans women continue to be allowed in women’s refuges?
- Should trans women continue to be able to sit on women-only panels or be on women-only shortlists?
- Should trans people continue to be allowed to play sport?
- How do other equality movements relate to trans equality?
- How can I support a trans young person?
- What can I do to be an ally to trans people?
The 2021 Census was a historic moment for the LGBTQ+ community in England and Wales. For the first time, the Census included two new voluntary questions on sexual orientation and trans status.
0.5% of the population (262,000 people in England and Wales) reported having a gender identity that is different from the one they were assigned at birth.
Within this, the number of trans women and trans men is almost exactly the same – each accounting for 0.1% of the population (48,000 people in England and Wales), with a slightly smaller proportion identifying as non-binary at 0.06% (30,000 people in England and Wales). 18,000 people wrote in a different gender identity.
Many people know they’re trans from a young age. Some trans people might not have the language or understanding of what it means to be trans until later in life. Other trans people do not know until they are teenagers or adults. There is no right or wrong way to be trans, but what is clear is that it’s not something that’s a fad or a 'lifestyle choice' and that all trans people deserve to be treated with dignity and respect. We can all recognise that our gender forms an important part of our identity, and when you aren’t recognised as being the gender you know you are, it can be extremely damaging.
Trans people in the UK are facing rising levels of abuse and inequality. In 2018, our research found that two in five trans people have had a hate crime committed against them in the last year, and one in eight trans people had been physically attacked by colleagues or customers at work. Research from Galop found that in 2020, four in five trans people had experienced a hate crime in the previous 12 months. This shows a worrying increase in transphobic violence and abuse.
Transphobic hate crime has been rising faster than against any other group, with the latest Home Office figures showing a 186% rise in transphobic hate crime reports in in England and Wales between 2018 - 2023, and the Home Office’s own report acknowledged that ‘Transgender issues have been heavily discussed by politicians, the media and on social media over the last year, which may have led to an increase in these offences.’
This concerning increase in anti-trans hate crime comes at a time when trans people are facing extremely high waiting times for essential healthcare - with detrimental effects on their mental wellbeing. Nearly all respondents to TransActual's 2022 research (86.9%, 814) stated that waiting to access hormones had negatively impacted their mental health, while 83.8% (897) said the same of waiting for surgery. Our research also shows a fuller picture of the challenges trans people experience with healthcare and wellbeing.
That’s why this is something we all need to care about, take seriously and work to tackle in whatever way we can – whether that’s at work, at school or in our communities.
That said, these stats only tell one part of the story. Being trans in no way means you’re going to have a bad life – trans people around the UK have rich, rewarding lives, careers, families and relationships, just like any other group of people. Being trans is not what causes trans people poor mental health - it is the discrimination, abuse and violence they often face.
In most cases, you don’t need to go through any legal or formal process. Transition can be any steps you take to express you’re a change in your gender, such as changing your name, pronouns or the way you dress. The Equality Act 2010 protects anyone proposing to undergo, is undergoing, or has undergone a process of ‘reassigning their sex’ from discrimination based on ‘gender reassignment’. You do not have to have taken any medical steps in your transition in order to be protected by this legislation. You can use the bathroom that fits your gender, expect your employers to recognise your gender, and access gender-specific public services.
Since at least as far back as 2009, to update your gender on a passport and driving licence, most people just need a note from a doctor. That’s what’s so frustrating about some of the current media debate – many of the trans rights discussions happening now are about things already established and protected by law.
One thing that causes a lot of difficulty and humiliation for some trans people is getting the gender on their birth certificate changed. This process is something that’s governed by the Gender Recognition Act 2004. The UK Government held a public consultation into reforming the Act for England and Wales in 2018 and published their response in 2020. The majority of feedback supported full reform, including a de-medicalised approach, non-binary recognition, and a simplified, cost-free process for obtaining a Gender Recognition Certificate. In spite of this, the Government decided only to reduce the fee for applying for a Gender Recognition Certificate, and to move the application process online. You can read Stonewall’s response here.
In Scotland, the Scottish Parliament passed the Gender Recognition Reform (Scotland) Bill with a majority of support drawn from MSPs from all political parties that would have de-medicalised legal gender recognition for trans people in Scotland and extended eligibility to 16 and 17 year olds. The UK Government vetoed the legislation in an unprecedented constitutional remove. The Scottish Government has challenged this decision, but until this constitutional issue is resolved, trans people in Scotland cannot benefit from the proposed changes.
Non-binary people aren’t currently recognised in legislation. Among other things, this means they must choose between ‘male’ and ‘female’ on official documents like passports and driving licences. However, a positive 2020 Employment Tribunal ruling stated that non-binary and genderfluid people could be protected from discrimination under the 2010 Equality Act. This judgment will be key in supporting future judicial decisions.
A Gender Recognition Certificate (GRC) is a document that allows some trans men and trans women to have the right gender on their birth certificate. This can make life easier when it comes to things like getting married, paying your taxes, or having your death recorded respectfully.
The process of getting a GRC is controlled by the Gender Recognition Act (GRA) 2004. It’s very outdated, and is a stressful, dehumanising and traumatic process for most trans people to go through.
Currently, in order to get a GRC, trans people have to get a medical diagnosis of ‘gender dysphoria’. Often this will be from a Gender Identity Clinic, where waiting times are long – those being seen for the first time today, would have been waiting for an average of four years. Those being referred today are likely to be waiting considerably longer.
Trans people also have to show they have lived in their ‘acquired gender’ for a minimum of two years, gathering evidence such as letters addressed to them and photos of themselves at events, to try to convince a panel of people who they will never meet that they are trans. In England and Wales, if they’re married, the individual also needs the consent of their spouse before they can proceed. This can leave trans people trapped in abusive or controlling situations.
A lot: it’s secretive, discriminatory, and it's medicalised when the World Health Organisation de-classified ‘gender identity disorders’ as a mental illness in 2019. It can also take several years to go through and involves a lot of bureaucracy and medical assessments – which are costly for those who can go private and have waiting lists of several years for those who go through the NHS system. It also only allows for people to switch from one binary gender to the other – male to female or vice versa – which means it doesn’t work at all for non-binary people who don’t identify as either.
The whole process is so traumatic and demeaning that many trans people simply can’t face it. There’s no need for it to be this way. Lots of other countries, including Ireland, have already reformed this process successfully and safely. Surveyed countries that have implemented a model based on legal declaration (often referred to as ‘Self ID’ or ‘self-determination’) - where trans people can change their gender by making a statutory declaration without the need for medical assessments – report no known case of fraud or criminal intent.
Countries with self-determination models often also have high standards protecting women’s rights and gender equality. The absence of abuse shows that self-determination is not a threat to women’s quotas and rather supports gender equality measures.
Being able to get a Gender Recognition Certificate matters: it means you can have a birth certificate with the right gender on it. While a trans person can access services and have official ID that reflects their gender without a GRC, having a GRC is important for major life events such as marriage – so that your marriage certificate can reflect your gender.
The findings from the UK Government’s consultation on the Gender Recognition Act can be found here and Stonewall’s statement on the disappointing lack of action from the Government on the results can be found here.
You do not need to have had any surgery or medical intervention to be, or to be recognised as, trans. This has been established in law for a long time. A lot of media coverage is focused on trans people’s body parts and surgical procedures, which is invasive and dehumanising.
For some trans people, having surgery to relieve dysphoria is an important part of their transition. Getting access to surgery has become increasingly difficult in recent years, with NHS waiting lists growing longer and Covid-19 and pressures on the NHS compounding the existing delays. More investment is desperately needed so that trans people can get the procedures they need. Our TRANSforming Futures: Healthcare report details the experiences of trans people across the UK, and their experiences with accessing healthcare.
For other trans people, surgery isn’t something they want or need in order to feel happy with their body. It’s the same with hormones, like testosterone and oestrogen treatments. It’s important to remember that being trans isn’t about having a particular appearance or particular body parts. It’s something that’s absolutely core to a trans person’s identity and is not dependent on their outward appearance.
Transition means different things for each person: there is no one single ‘gender reassignment operation’ and no end goal to transition, beyond what the individual wants.
Does teachers and doctors talking about trans issues more make children and young people think they are trans when they aren’t?
No. Over 30 years ago, Section 28 was introduced to prevent schools from ‘promoting homosexuality’ because there were fears that children would ‘turn gay’ if they learned about lesbian, gay and bi people. While this might seem ridiculous to many of us now, we’re currently seeing very similar conversations happening around teaching kids about trans people in school.
The fact that teachers, doctors, families, and caregivers are talking about gender more is a good thing. It means that children and young people have a better grounding to understand themselves, and to celebrate difference in others.
All children and young people deserve the right to be happy and to be themselves. When young people access support, they’re looking for exactly that: support. They want someone to talk things through with, someone who can understand their thoughts and feelings, and help them to have similar conversations with others around them. Those who do explore their identity and realise they are trans deserve love, support, and age-appropriate care.
Every trans person’s transition is individual. For some, it will involve purely social steps, such as changing their name or pronouns. For others, transitioning may also include medical steps – meaning hormone blockers or hormone therapy. Under 18s cannot access surgery within the UK.
When it comes to medical transition, some children and young people may not want or require any medical support. Some may choose to wait before making decisions about future medical care. For some young people who are certain about who they are, and who may become increasingly distressed by changes in their body as they get older, medical treatment can be the right course of action with support from specialist medical professionals.
In the UK, after assessment, this can involve being prescribed puberty blockers. This non-permanent treatment gives young people time and space to work out what is right for them, without the distress of the heightened dysphoria that puberty can bring on. It can also help those who know for sure that they do not want to experience the puberty that will occur for them without intervention. From 16 onwards, after further assessment, this can include cross-sex hormones (such as oestrogen or testosterone). In the UK, only adults (over 18s) can access gender-affirming surgery.
It’s important to note that, contrary to narratives that young people are being ‘fast-tracked’ into medical transition, waiting lists for these services are now an average of almost four years long – leaving young people and their families without any support.
It is important that the wellbeing, rights, and wishes of the young person are at the centre of any decisions made. What is right for one young person may be different to what is right for another.
In short: no. Conversion therapy are practices where the only goal is to stop someone being who they are. Good therapy supports patients to explore their identity and supports them regardless of the answers they find.
This question also assumes that a person can only be trans or lesbian, gay, bi, etc. But sexual orientation (who you are attracted to) is unrelated to gender identity (who you are). The UK Government's National LGBT Survey shows that only 9.4% of trans people identify as straight, while 73.1% of trans respondents said that they are gay/lesbian, bi, pan, or queer. A further 5.4% were ace.
Some trans people are subjected to conversion practices that attempt to stop them being trans. This is as harmful and damaging as conversion therapy that tries to change someone’s sexual orientation. Our research found that that in the UK, one in five trans people (20%) have been pressured to access services to suppress their gender identity when accessing healthcare services.
Conversion therapy, in all its forms, should be banned – you can learn more about our campaign to ban LGBTQ+ conversion therapy here.
Let’s start with the reality: the vast majority of trans people who transition do so without any regrets. But while detransitioning is very rare (less than 1%), it does happen.
People detransition for many reasons, and detransition does not, in and of itself, mean regret. It can mean that a person, having explored their gender, has found that this isn’t the right thing for them. It can also mean a person has decided this moment isn’t the right time for them to transition, and they might plan to do so when they have more support.
The most common reason for detransition is that an individual cannot cope with the family and community support they lost and the transphobia they experienced when they transitioned. Those who detransition or experience regret deserve ongoing support and care, as do people who transition and live as that gender for the rest of their lives.
It's important to remember that the fact that some people detransition does not make the experiences and existence of trans people any less valid or real. Nor does it mean that transition-based healthcare should be made even harder to access than it already is.
You can read more about this on our dispelling myths around detransition page.
We want systems that are inclusive and do not discriminate against people because of who they are. Most importantly of all, we want equality.
Where gender is listed on documents, we believe it is only fair for all people to have the gender that reflects their lived reality on their documents – including non-binary people and intersex people.
We believe that processes and documents can be made to include and protect everyone quite easily. We need to look at systems sensibly and think critically about what information is needed and what information isn’t. For some trans people, having a gender listed on a document will make them feel safer, and for others the opposite can be true. Safety and inclusion must be at the centre of any future decisions.
All that is required is a common-sense approach that is inclusive and supportive.
‘Non-binary’ is an umbrella term for people who:
- don’t solely identify as either male or female
- identify as both male and female
- identify with another gender
- don’t identify with any gender
Because the binary terms of ‘male’ and ‘female’ don’t fit, using pronouns such as ‘he’ or ‘she’ might not always be right, so when you talk to someone who’s non-binary try to find a good moment and ask them how they would prefer to be addressed. The person might use ‘they’, ‘he’ or ‘she’ pronouns, something different, or no pronouns at all.
It may take a bit of getting used to, but using the pronouns a non-binary person has asked for will make that person feel acknowledged and welcomed. It’s not long since some people struggled to accept that some women wanted to be called Ms instead of Miss, but we got used to the common courtesy of simply asking people how they wanted to be addressed. This is no different.
There are websites that can help you get used to using pronouns that are new to you, such as Practice with Pronouns.
‘Cis’ is short for ‘cisgender’, which means somebody whose gender identity matches the sex they were assigned at birth. Basically, it means ‘not trans’. The word has a Latin root which means ‘on the same side as’.
Using the word ‘cis’ is important – without it, people might use phrases like ‘trans people and normal people’, which is stigmatising.
‘Cis’ and ‘trans’ are neutral descriptive terms that put everyone on an equal footing and name one part of our experiences of gender.
‘Deadnaming’ is the term for when somebody refers to a trans person using the name they had before they transitioned. ‘Misgendering’ is the term used when someone refers to a trans person using terms linked to the gender they were assigned at birth, instead of their real gender (for example by using terms like ‘man’, ‘woman’ or using pronouns incorrectly).
When done deliberately, deadnaming and misgendering are both deeply hurtful to trans people. If you hear people doing this, stand up as an ally and challenge the person saying it, if it’s safe for you to do so.
Understanding gender identity and trans issues can be confusing at first, but nobody is expecting you to know everything right away. If you want to find out more about the experiences of some trans people, you can hear them in their own words in these videos.
If you say the wrong thing by accident (which is something that happens to everyone), just apologise, recognise you’ve got it wrong, and move on. We’re all human and people slip up sometimes. As long as you have good intentions, most trans people will appreciate you acknowledging your blunder and help you get it right. It’s important that we have real, honest, respectful conversations.
Sexual orientation (who you are attracted to) is completely unrelated to gender identity (who you are). You can be trans and gay, trans and straight, trans and bi, ace, or anything else – just like a cis person can be.
Of course – if they fancy each other! Adults are free to have relationships with other consenting adults, whatever their sexual orientation or gender identity. Trans people have the same range of sexual orientations as cis people, and there are many trans lesbians and gay trans men.
Trans people can and have been using the toilets that match their gender for decades without issue. The media-generated ‘debate’ about public toilets is having a negative effect on the whole LGBTQ+ community. Anyone whose appearance doesn’t fit with stereotypical ideas around what men or women look like are increasingly being challenged simply for using the loo.
Having facilities that everyone can use – like gender-neutral single stall toilets and changing rooms with private space – makes life easier for lots of people. Many businesses and institutions have been taking this approach for a long time now as it benefits families, people with disabilities and many LGBTQ+ people.
When toilets are gendered, in general trans men have the legal right to use the men’s toilets, and trans women have the legal right to use women’s toilets.
Restricting trans peoples’ access to public toilets would severely limit their ability to live their lives freely. After all, most people need to use a toilet at some point during the day.
Refuges exist to support vulnerable women leaving unsafe situations. Our 2018 research found that 41% of trans people have experienced a hate crime in the past year, and more than one in four trans people in a relationship have faced domestic abuse from a partner. It’s heart-breaking to imagine being the victim of violence and then being turned away from help when you desperately need it.
Many refuges already support trans women escaping abuse. In fact, most domestic violence services in Scotland have been doing this for nearly 10 years. You can read a statement from Scottish women’s organisations about this here. We have to trust that the people running these services know what they’re doing. They’re the experts at supporting women in these services and running risk assessments on a number of issues every day.
There’s a chronic lack of funding and support for refuges, which means victims of domestic violence and abuse who desperately need help are being turned away in ever increasing numbers. That’s something we all need to work together to tackle. We also need more shelters for men, and LGBTQ-specific shelters.
Yes. Trans women are women, and because of that it makes sense that they should have the same opportunities as any other woman. Women-only panels and shortlists exist to try and redress the gender inequality that all women – trans women included – face every day.
Panels and shortlists are stronger when they recognise and represent women from a wide range of backgrounds. This includes trans women, who have very little visible representation in positions of power and who can bring different experiences and perspectives to the table.
Trans people are already playing sport. Most governing bodies in sports have rules to support trans inclusion which have been in place for many years.
But recently, there has been lots of discussion about opportunities for trans people in sport, with particular attention on how trans women can participate in elite sport. It’s important that these conversations have inclusion at their heart, so that everyone can experience the different benefits of sport.
The impact of transition on athletes at different levels in different sports is not well understood. Generalised average data about strength, body mass and testosterone doesn’t account for the wide range of people of all genders who take part in different sports, at different levels. It also ignores the influence of skill and training on fairness and safety.
When people focus on testosterone levels as equating to sporting success, it not only negatively affects trans people in sport, but it also affects anyone who does not fit with stereotypical, western ideas about what a woman’s body should be like. This sexism often intersects with other prejudices such as racism, homophobia and discrimination against intersex people. We saw this in action at the 2020 Olympics, when Namibian track and field stars Christine Mboma and Beatrice Masilingi were banned from competing because of their natural testosterone levels.
Sport has the power to change lives. From recreational to elite, sport at all levels helps people come together, work as a team, push themselves and achieve amazing things – and no one should be left behind or excluded.
Read more on trans inclusion in sport here.
Trans people are not one-dimensional beings: like everyone else we have intersectional identities. This means the fight for trans equality cannot be fully achieved without achieving equality for everyone.
At its core, the trans rights movement is based on the same ideals as other liberation movements, including the women’s rights, racial equality and disability rights movements. For example:
- the right to bodily autonomy
- the right to self-determination rather than physical attributes determining the options open to you
- freedom from limits and stereotypes placed on us by society
- freedom from interpersonal and state violence
When supporting a trans young person, the most impactful things you can do are:
Refer to them in whatever way they prefer and be willing to changing the pronouns and names you use for them – they may try out several different names and pronouns to find the one that is right for them.
Let them know that:
- they will have your support no matter what identity they settle on
- it’s OK for them to change their mind as many times as they need to
- it’s also OK for them identify the way they currently do for the rest of their lives
Check in with them about what they want, and who they are comfortable with you using the new pronouns and name around. If there are people that the young person does not feel comfortable being out to, it is important to respect their confidentiality.
Create space for the young person to share situations that they are finding difficult and try to problem solve together.
For more information on how to support trans young people in education settings, visit our trans inclusion guide for schools and colleges.
You can also check out Gendered Intelligence who work with young trans people aged 8+.
More and more people are recognising the importance of stepping up and being a vocal ally to trans people. Prominent individuals in politics and in the media are already doing it, as are leading organisations and businesses.
But there are also lots of small steps you can take to be a trans ally. Whether it’s online or in real life, simply listening to – and supporting – trans people can make a huge difference.
For more information on what else you can do, go to our current campaigns page. You can also sign up for our newsletter to stay up to date, as well as getting stuck into our five-year partnership project TRANSforming Futures. Explore our programmes with workplaces and schools to take your trans inclusion work to the next level.