LGB people from black and ethnic minority communities

On average, black and ethnic minority communities experience worse health outcomes that their white counterparts. Barriers exist that prevent full inclusion by people in the health sector.

Removing these barriers is a key objective of the Department of Health and the health sector in general.  The Health sector also recognises its obligations under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000) not just to promote race equality but to improve relations between different ethnic groups and build cohesive communities.

LGB people can also belong to black and ethnic minority communities and can experience homophobia within their own communities, and racism from the gay community. They may also experience racism and homophobia from health care practitioners. Discrimination acts as a barrier to full health inclusion and therefore measures to tackle racism should also include measures to tackle homophobia.

Evidence suggests that currently black gay and bisexual men are under served within the health sector, yet black gay and bisexual men remain amongst one of the highest ‘at risk’ groups of getting and passing on sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. This indicates that specific health care messages have to be developed to communicate effectively with men. There is limited research about the unique health care needs of women from black and ethnic minority communities.


  • Asian American sexualities: dimensions of the gay and lesbian experience. R Leong. (1996)
  • Asian gay counter-hegemonic negotiation of Birmingham’s pink pound territory. C Bassi. (2003)
  • Black gay man: essays. R F. Feid-Pharr.(2002)
  • Contemporary mental health issues among African Americans. D A. Harley, J M Dillard. (2004)
  • Say it Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud: Black Pride Survey 2000 J Battle , C Cohen , DWarren , Fergerson, G, Audam,
  • Age and race mixing patterns of sexual partnerships among Asian men who have sex with men: Implications for HIV transmission and prevention K Choi, D Operario, S Gregorich,Han, L (2003)
  • Spirituality and sexual orientation: relationship to mental well-being and functional health status C Coleman (2003)
  • The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men I Crawford, K Allison, B Zamboni, Soto, T (2002)
  • What are you like? Accessing the sexual health needs of Black gay and bisexual men K Fenton, B White, P Weatherburn,Cadette, M (1999)
  • The Low Down: Black Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexual people talk about their Experiences and Needs GALOP (2001)
  • Triple jeopardy: Targeting older men of color who have sex with men A Jimenez (2003)
  • Ethnic Minority Gay Men: Redefinning Community, Restoring Identity P Keogh, L Henderson, C Dodds (2004)
  • Perceptions of condom use among African American men who have sex with men Peterson, R Bakeman, J Blackshear,Stokes, J (2003)

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