The history of criminal convictions against gay and bi men
Until 1967 anal sex between men (buggery) was unlawful. People caught were prosecuted under Section 61 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 and Section 12 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956.
The Sexual Offences Act (1967) decriminalised consensual sex between men over 21 and in private, in England and Wales. In Scotland consensual sex between men was decriminalised by the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act (1980). While sexual acts between women have never been specifically outlawed in the UK, some prosecutions for indecent assault were made in the past.
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994) reduced the age of consent for gay and bi men in England and Wales to 18, and in 2001 to 16.
In May 2004, the Sexual Offences Act (2003) repealed the sexual offences of gross indecency and buggery which were deleted from the statutes.
Gross indecency with another man
The offence of gross indecency was introduced in 1885. While there was no set definition of gross indecency in law, it was used to prosecute people for a whole range of ‘homosexual acts’ when it could not be proven they’d engaged in buggery. People were charged with the offence originally under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, and subsequently Section 13 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956.
Loitering with intent
The police also maliciously prosecuted people for being in an area where they suspected gay and bi men were having sex. Often men were prosecuted under Section 4 of the Vagrancy Act 1824 for frequenting with intent (commonly known as loitering with intent).
Members of the armed forces who were prosecuted for the above offences were sometimes charged under separate laws covering the armed forces.
Removing historical convictions from criminal records
From 1 October 2012, people in England and Wales with convictions and cautions for acts which are no longer unlawful, can apply to the Home Office to have these offences removed from their criminal records.